USPSA Competitions: The Most Extreme Shooting Sport?


The United States Practical Shooting Association (USPSA) serves as the national regulatory authority for practical shooting, as its name suggests. It is the premier practical shooting organization in the country, with over 37,000 active members and north of 440 affiliated clubs. And with multiple divisions, pitting action shooting enthusiasts from all skill levels against each other, many consider it one of the most extreme shooting competitions.

Besides skillful gun handling, safety is a primary focus of USPSA competitions, enforcing strict safety guidelines, such as unloading and holstering firearms before entering a stage. In addition, you must store your ammo properly and wear proper eye and ear protection.   

The article discusses what makes USPSA competitions the most popular modern action shooting sport in the US.   

What is Practical Shooting?

Practical shooting (or action shooting) is a fast-paced sport involving shooting at both moving and stationary targets using various firearms, including handguns, shotguns, and rifles. Compared to target shooting, where you can practice shooting at a leisurely pace and solely focus on hitting the targets, practical shooting requires accuracy, speed, and quick decision-making.  

Action shooting involves moving and shooting from different positions while navigating various obstacles through a course. These stages test a shooter’s ability to handle their firearm under various conditions. On top of this, USPSA competitions employ a distinct scoring system, forcing shooters to hit the targets with speed and accuracy while coming up with a strategy that produces the most points.  

This unique challenge attracts competitive shooters looking to test their skills against other action shooting enthusiasts while enjoying the camaraderie of its community. And with multiple divisions based on firearms, equipment, and skill level, participants can enjoy a level playing field.    

USPSA Scoring

Understanding the complex scoring system of USPSA competitions allows shooters to plan for different stages and create more effective strategies. Below are its primary elements.  

  • Power factor scoring 

The first thing prospective participants must understand is the difference between Major and Minor power factor scoring. A power factor is a number representing a bullet’s muzzle velocity multiplied by the grain weight of the shell. For brevity, the resulting number is divided by 1,000. 

For example, take a 147-grain 9mm bullet going 875 feet per second. Using the formula above (147 x 875 = 128,625) and rounding off the result would give a power factor of 129. This complex scoring system is based on the belief that harder-hitting rounds must have an advantage. Modern USPSA rules have since simplified this, classifying rounds with a power factor greater than 165 as Major and rounds less than 165 as Minor.  

A minimum 125 power factor is required in competitions. For beginners, it’s best to try out different rounds before investing in bulk ammunition.  

  • Target scoring 

Target scoring is more straightforward, giving a specific number of points depending on the power factor to different zones. Zones are divided into A, C, and D and awarded 5, 4, and 3 points, respectively, for major power factor shooters. So, for example, if a stage has ten targets that need to be shot two times each, the most points a shooter can get is 100 points (5 x 2 = 10 or 10 x 2 = 100).  

Meanwhile, minor power factor scoring awards 5, 3, and 1 point, respectively, for the same zones. The logic here is that a .45 caliber firearm generates more recoil than a 9mm, making it harder to take accurate follow-up shots (even while target shooting).   

  • Hit factor 

The hit factor simply translates to points per second. Going back to the example above, if a shooter gets 100 points and takes 19 seconds to do so, they get a hit factor of 5.263 (100 ÷ 19). While that seems simple enough, the USPSA assigns penalties for different actions. For example, completely missing a target results in -10 points. The same goes for failing to follow the stage procedure and shooting outside a specified shooting position.  

Take this hypothetical result to demonstrate how hit factors play into the competition. Shooter A gets 150 points in 45 seconds, while shooter B scores 120 points in 30 seconds. In this scenario, shooter A has a hit factor of 3.333 (150 ÷ 45), while shooter B has 4.0 (120 ÷ 3).  

As you can imagine, shooter A decided to aim for zones with higher points but took longer to do so. Meanwhile, shooter B aimed for lower-scored zones (usually easier to hit) and took less time to complete the stage. This element of action shooting can make it a fun and addictive endeavor—a big reason for shooting sports’ growing popularity.  

  • Match win calculation 

Matches have multiple stages. Taking the example above, if shooter B ends up with the highest hit factor (HHF) at 4.0, that person wins the stage and takes the highest possible points (150 in this example). Meanwhile, everyone else gets points based on their score’s percentage of the HHF. As such, shooter A (3.333 ÷ 4 = .833) gets 83.3% of the stage’s maximum points, which in this hypothetical case is 124.95 (150 x 8.33).  

The shooter with the most points at the end of the match wins.    

Final words

Despite the complex scoring system, the fast-paced nature of USPSA competitions creates a dynamic experience for participants. And because no two stages are alike, it always presents fresh and diverse challenges even to the most seasoned action shooters, making practical shooting a captivating sport for aficionados.